Make crops breeding more accurate and efficient (science and technology viewpoint · Seed industry technology self -reliance ⑤)
The "high -vitamin C" lettuce cultivated by Shunfeng Bio.
Shunfeng biological pictures, have you seen a vitamin C content comparable to kiwi? In the Yazhou Bay Seed Laboratory in Hainan Province, "high -vitamin C" lettuce is long and happy.
The new variety of lettuce cultivated through gene editing technology is comparable to that of kiwi.
In the process of plant cell synthetic vitamin C, two genes play a key role, namely vitamin C synthetic speed limitase. Zhu Jiankang, a professor at Southern University of Science and Technology and director of the Frontier Technology Innovation Center of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, led the scientific research team to accurately edit the upstream expression regulatory components of these two genes in lettuce, so that the vitamin C content of these lettuce has been significantly improved. The gene editing technology of the Nobel Prize in 2020 is known as the revolutionary breakthrough of life science in the 21st century. It has been applied in many countries, showing broad prospects in scientific research, agriculture, and clinical medicine.
How does the magical "gene scissors" achieve variety improvement? Can my country be on the genetic editing and breeding later? Finding the successful development of the "gene scissors" new gene editing tool that can be accurately positioned, which helps to cultivate a higher output and better quality crop gene is a DNA (deoxyrum ribosicate) fragment with genetic effects. , Support the basic structure and performance of life.
The traits of creatures are mainly determined by genes, such as the height of corn, the height of the output, and whether it can resist.
According to Zhu Jiankang, the final result of gene editing and traditional breeding technology is similar, that is, the introduction of genetic variations needed by humans. According to the traditional breeding method, it may take several or even decades to improve a variety. This is because the various mutations created by traditional breeding technology are random and uncontrollable. "In terms of hybrid breeding, it is necessary to go through multi -generation screening and encounter a very small probability of mutation that really needs, which is one of the reasons why the breeding cycle is long and difficult. Later, scientists tried to create genetic mutations, such as Space breeding is to use the special mutagenic effect of space to cause seeds to mutate the seeds.
"Zhu Jiankang said.
The emergence of gene editing makes more accurate gene regulation a reality.
"Gene editing is the technology that changes the target gene sequence. Just like modifying the text, we must first find out where you want to modify, and then use the tools to insert and delete part of the ‘word’ or rewritten a segment ‘text according to the intention of modification. ‘. "Zhu Jiankang explained that gene editing can accurately locate the specific genes of crops. After the gene is" cut ", the cells will repair the fracture and produce mutations. Using gene editing technology, a certain gene to improve the crop only takes a short time, and can regulate up to dozens of genes at a time. Zhu Jiankang told reporters: "The existing research shows that gene editing technology can accurately and quickly generate the gene mutations required for improvement of crop improvement, helping to cultivate higher output, more nutritious, more resistant to extreme weather, less chemical fertilizer fertilizer. And pesticide crops. Now, gene editing tools can not only be used to remove or weaken genes that are not conducive to agricultural traits, but also enhance many genes that are beneficial to crops. "During the gene editing process, find its own" navigation system "and be able to accurately accurately. The genetic editing tool for positioning is very important.
CRISPR/CAS9 technology is the "gene scissors" that has received much attention in recent years. It constitutes simple, highly editing efficiency and easy to operate, and can directed the genetic genetic transformation of the biological itself. "This technology is very widely used, and in the process of application, this ‘scissors’ polished even more sharply.
"Zhu Jiankang said.
In 2018, Professor Lai Jinsheng, a professor of Chinese Agricultural University, found two new gene editing tools CRISPR/CAS12I and CRISPR/CAS12J. Compared with CRISPR/CAS9, the key functions of accurate genome editing were retained in compact protein stents. There is a good application prospect in the process of plant gene editing. Since then, Zhu Jiankang led the team to cooperate with it to jointly develop subsequent development.
In 2019, the two new gene editing tools applied for original patents; in 2020, the team successfully verified its editing activity in the stable conversion system of the plant; in March 2021, the two new type of gene editing tools were officially authorized. Focusing on the successful development of more than 20 kinds of crops around the industry’s scientific research, the reserve layout of more than a hundred products in Shandong Shunfeng Biotechnology Co., Ltd., which is located in Jinan, has been carried out. : There are main grain crops such as high -yield rice, dwarfed high -yielded corn; there are special species such as corn, rice, potato and other special species with starch quality; as well as fragrant and fresh corn, "high vitamin C" lettuce, high oxic acid, high oxic acid New varieties such as soybeans. Shunfeng Bio is the first domestic operating subject of the engineering development platform in accurate gene editing. This high -tech enterprise led by Zhu Jiankang’s team to dig and in -depth optimization of the two new gene editing tools, and systematically patented the patent layout around the gene editing card neck technology and common key technology. Among them, there are 26 PCT patents, and 17 patent authorization has been obtained.
At present, Shunfeng Bio has successfully developed the gene editing system of more than 20 crops, and has carried out the reserve layout of more than 100 products.
"We use the new gene editing tools well. The ultimate goal is to apply it to crop breeding, rather than just staying at the academic research level.
Zhu Jiankang admitted that in the early days of research and development, many achievements of the team did not publish.
"We develop this technology, not to post articles, but to promote industrialization, form a market -oriented operating mechanism, effectively motivate scientific researchers to overcome key core technologies and make products that meet market demand.
"" To do useful scientific research around the needs of the industry. "This is the most words that Dr. Li Feng, general manager of Shunfeng Bio.
Many scientific researchers in Shunfeng Biological ran all year round at the front line of agricultural production and collected common needs. For example, Li Feng said that in the process of dwarfing and anti -high -yield corn cultivation, scientific researchers spent a lot of energy to determine which genes these traits were controlled. "We have made many combinations and formed a series of application solutions. For example, the corn planted in the northeast of my country has the need for anti -falling, and it has a good application scenario to reduce the height of the plant.
"At present, Shunfeng Biological has built more than 8,000 square meters of technology platforms and 10,000 square meters of R & D centers to plan and build a genetic editing industrialization base of 100,000 square meters. The pilotization platform for the innovation and cultivation platform of high -throughput germplasm resources, high -throughput germplasm resource innovation cultivation platform, plant gene editing. Here is a technology center consisting of molecular departments, genetic transformation department, traits, and breeding big data departments. The R & D center composed of the Technology R & D Ministry and the Inspection Division, with the industrial development center of the seed industry chain as the layout, brings together more than 240 scientific researchers in various fields of life sciences. "The close combination of industry -university -research is to promote gene editing and breeding to the industry. The key to moving forward. "Dr. Niu Xiaomu, Director of Shunfeng Biological Project, believes that in order to establish and improve the system of industry, university, and research, the company has extensively cooperated with colleges and universities, introduced a group of guest professors teams and jointly trained graduate students, forming a joint force of scientific research, and jointly promoting the industrialization of gene editing. application.
Industrialization has ushered in new opportunities for the research and development and application of crop gene editing and applications. It has strengthened the system of the application of gene editing technology in my country to ensure gene editing technology. The competitive weapon of my country’s seed industry.
In January of this year, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs released the "Guide to Safety Evaluation of Agricultural Gene Editing Plants (Trial)" (hereinafter referred to as the "Guide"). System guarantee for application.
The "Guide" clearly states that for genetic editing plants that have not been introduced from external genes, the safety evaluation is declared based on possible risk declarations.
"This will help my country to build a more accurate and efficient biological breeding technology system. The development and industrial development of gene editing and breeding technology will also usher in new opportunities." Zhu Jiankang said. Niu Xiaomu said that the release of the Guide made the company more confident.
In the next step, they will accelerate the layout of the biochemical breeding industry, continue to carry out biological breeding technology, and continue to dig deeper into market demand, form a joint force with the downstream seed industry, agricultural chemical and biotechnology companies, achieve complementary advantages in the industrial chain, promote gene editing Technology product reserve layout. Zhu Jiankang’s hometown is in rural Anhui and is the main production area of ??food.
When he was young, Zhu Jiankang’s ideal was very simple: he was admitted to college, eating commercial food, and not burdening his family. "Parents can do farm work now.
They will often ask me, what did they do for decades? I said how many articles I posted, and they couldn’t understand it, and I always felt that I didn’t do anything. "Zhu Jiankang said," Doing the gene editing technology well and making my parents happy and benefiting the majority of farmers is my greatest wish.
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